Dogs

Pet owner advice sheets

Separation anxiety

We ask a lot from our dogs when we expect them to fit into our hectic modern lives. Happily most dogs adapt to our lifestyle with ease but there are a few dogs out there for whom the modern way of life can get a bit too stressful at times. Some of these dogs turn... Read more »

Pica

Dogs sometimes eat things that are not food. Pica is defined as the persistent chewing and consumption of non-nutritional substances that provide no physical benefit to the animal. It can be a sign of distress or anxiety. There are many potential causes of this anxiety including changes in the social or physical environment or because... Read more »

Noise phobias

If your dog is afraid of sudden noises then life can be miserable for both of you. Summer thunderstorms can become a major trauma and unless you live in a remote part of the country there is almost no way of avoiding fireworks. There are some simple tips that can help to make the whole... Read more »

House training your puppy

House training is the term we normally use for the process of training a puppy to go outside to urinate or defaecate (toilet) rather than toileting in the home. Once puppies have been house trained they should remain clean in the house throughout their life. If your dog has been house trained and then starts... Read more »

Firework fear

Firework fear is a common problem in dogs. It is not surprising that animals are scared of fireworks since they are very loud (up to 150 decibels). Sounds this loud can be physically painful as well as inducing fear. The noise from fireworks also lacks a clear pattern, with the source of the noise not... Read more »

Destructiveness and chewing

Having a young puppy in the house brings much pleasure but puppies also bring with them many undesirable behaviours. Early training is important to ensure that your puppy grows up understanding the rules in your house and fits in with your lifestyle. All dogs chew at some point in their life and this is only... Read more »

Boredom

Dogs, just like people, can get bored if they do not get enough mental stimulation. In the modern world pet dogs are often left alone at home for longer periods of time and in some animals this can cause significant problems. Why do dogs get bored? A lack of mental stimulation can result in boredom... Read more »

Basic training for dogs

A dog owner is responsible for their pet in public places, so if your dog misbehaves you could be in trouble. A poorly trained dog can also be a danger to itself. Imagine the consequences if your dog ignores you and runs across a busy road. In order to have the perfect pet you will... Read more »

Barking

Dogs bark to communicate their emotions. Different barks can mean different things and variations in bark sounds are also caused by individual characteristics. A Great Dane's bark sounds somewhat different to that of a Chihuahua even when they mean the same thing. All dogs bark at some time but if your dog is a persistent... Read more »

Urine samples: how to collect

Tests are used by vets to help them diagnose disease in animals that are ill, which means your vet may ask you to bring in a urine sample (water sample) from your pet to help find out what's wrong with your dog. Urine samples are usually taken to check for diseases such as diabetes or... Read more »

Urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence means the loss of ability to control urination and can be caused by a variety of diseases. Incontinence is quite common in dogs but is usually more of a nuisance to the owners than a cause of distress to their pet. Urinary incontinence is more common in females than males because of the... Read more »

Cystitis (bladder inflammation)

As anyone who has ever suffered with cystitis (a sore bladder) will know, it is a very unpleasant condition. Although not usually life-threatening, cystitis can be very distressing for your dog. It is important to seek veterinary advice as soon as possible since most cases can be easily treated with a short course of antibiotic... Read more »

Cystitis (bladder inflammation)

As anyone who has ever suffered with cystitis (a sore bladder) will know, it is a very unpleasant condition. Although not usually life-threatening, cystitis can be very distressing for your dog. It is important to seek veterinary advice as soon as possible since most cases can be easily treated with a short course of antibiotic... Read more »

von Willebrand’s disease (vWD)

This is the most common inherited bleeding disorder in dogs. It causes defective blood clotting due to reduced amounts of von Willebrands factor (vWF). This is a protein which helps tiny blood cells called platelets stick to each other and form an effective blood clot in the body. Many breeds may be genetic carriers of... Read more »

Anaemia

Red blood cells carry vital oxygen around the body. A shortage of red blood cells in the circulation is called anaemia. There are many different causes of anaemia in dogs and in most cases a variety of tests will be needed to diagnose the underlying problem. Severe anaemia can be life-threatening and requires urgent treatment.... Read more »

Anaemia

Red blood cells carry vital oxygen around the body. A shortage of red blood cells in the circulation is called anaemia. There are many different causes of anaemia in dogs and in most cases a variety of tests will be needed to diagnose the underlying problem. Severe anaemia can be life-threatening and requires urgent treatment.... Read more »

Radiotherapy for your dog

Pets today are healthier and, in general, living longer than ever before. However the increasing numbers of ageing pets mean that they are at increasing risk of developing cancer later in life. Radiotherapy aims to give a high dose of radiation to the cancer cells (doing maximum damage) whilst minimising the dose to the rest... Read more »

Lymphoma chemotherapy

Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymph cells and can arise almost anywhere in the body. Lymphoma is one of the most commonly treated forms of the disease. Modern treatment protocols can be highly effective in controlling lymphoma and affected dogs can have several years of normal life with appropriate treatment. What is chemotherapy? Chemotherapy... Read more »

Lumps and bumps

Finding a lump on your pet can be a worrying experience. Although most lumps are harmless it is impossible to tell what a lump is simply by looking at it. If your pet has a swelling that lasts for more than a few days always ask your vet to check it for you. Are all... Read more »

Chemotherapy: safe handling

Chemotherapy is now a commonplace treatment for cancer in pets. In many people's mind the term 'chemotherapy' conjures up frightening images of people suffering with cancer (and the effects of treatment) - however chemotherapy in pets is usually very different. What is chemotherapy? Chemotherapy is a highly toxic drug given alone, or in combination with other... Read more »

Chemotherapy for your dog

Although it can be frightening to learn that your pet has cancer there have been big advances in the treatment of cancer in animals. Chemotherapy is now a commonplace treatment for cancer in pets. If your dog is diagnosed with cancer it is possible that you will be offered some form of chemotherapy (perhaps alongside... Read more »

Canine osteosarcoma

An osteosarcoma is cancer of the bone. It usually arises in the bones of the limbs but can develop in the bones of the skull, spine or ribcage and there are rare cases of this cancer arising in non-bony tissues like mammary glands and muscle. What is osteosarcoma? Osteosarcoma is most commonly found in large... Read more »

Canine lymphoma

There are many different forms of lymphoma in the dog, just as there are in humans. Some types of lymphoma are associated with better outcomes than others but most types respond favourably to the administration of chemotherapy. There are some that do not and it is important to attempt to identify these cases as other... Read more »

Canine insulinoma

Insulinoma is a cancer of the pancreas, which can cause affected dogs to have a poor exercise tolerance or even collapse. Early diagnosis of this condition is essential to provide the most effective therapy. How would I know if my dog had an insulinoma? An insulinoma is a special kind of cancer of the pancreas.... Read more »

Canine cutaneous mast cell tumors

Mast cell tumours are common tumours of the skin in dogs. Whilst many mast cell tumours can be cured by appropriate management, dogs that get one mast cell tumour can frequently develop other separate mast cell tumours elsewhere on their skin at other times in their life. What is a mast cell tumour? Mast cell... Read more »

Cancer in your dog – possible options

Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. The speed with which a cancer spreads and the severity of the disease it causes depends on the type of tissue cell affected. As many as one in five dogs are likely to develop one of the many different forms of cancer at some stage of their... Read more »

Exercise – for a healthy, happy dog

All animals need exercise to be happy and healthy. Exercise improves general fitness levels and helps to prevent obesity. If your dog isn't able to work off their energy by exercising outside, they may do so inside! Taking regular exercise together will alleviate boredom and also strengthen the bond between you. How much exercise does... Read more »

Complementary therapies

Some forms of alternative or complementary medicine such as osteopathy and physiotherapy are widely used in veterinary medicine alongside conventional treatment. However, owners of dogs and other small animals are increasingly looking at other alternative therapies such as acupuncture, herbal medicine and homeopathy to help with a wide variety of common complaints. What is acupuncture? Acupuncture... Read more »

Anal sac disease

Anal sac problems are very common in pet dogs and something frequently seen by veterinary surgeons. In most cases, the conditions are easily treated, though they can sometimes recur. This factsheet provides information on the location and function of anal sacs as well as discussing common conditions and their treatment. What are anal sacs? Anal... Read more »

Amputee dog care

There are a number of reasons which may necessitate the removal of an animal's leg. The two most common of these are severe trauma, for example after a road traffic accident, or as management of a leg cancer. As a general rule, dogs cope far better with amputation than people imagine they will. Humans of... Read more »

Amputee dog care

There are a number of reasons which may necessitate the removal of an animal's leg. The two most common of these are severe trauma, for example after a road traffic accident, or as management of a leg cancer. As a general rule, dogs cope far better with amputation than people imagine they will. Humans of... Read more »

Fainting (syncope)

Fainting (syncope) does occur in dogs but is less common than in people. When a dog faints it briefly loses consciousness and falls to the ground motionless but in most cases recovers within a few moments without treatment. It is important, but often difficult, to differentiate between fainting and fitting because the causes and treatments... Read more »

Epilepsy (seizures)

If your dog has had a fit (convulsion) you will know how frightening it can be. Fits are not uncommon in dogs but many dogs only ever have a single fit. If your dog has had more than one fit it may be that he has epilepsy. Just as in people, there are tablets for... Read more »

Epilepsy (seizures)

If your dog has had a fit (convulsion) you will know how frightening it can be. Fits are not uncommon in dogs but many dogs only ever have a single fit. If your dog has had more than one fit it may be that he has epilepsy. Just as in people, there are tablets for... Read more »

Epilepsy (seizures)

If you have witnessed your cat having a seizure (convulsion), you will know how frightening it can be. If your cat has had more than one seizure it may be that they are epileptic. There are medications that can control seizures, allowing your cat to live a more normal life. What is a seizure? A... Read more »

Periodontal disease and how to prevent it

Periodontal disease affects the area around the teeth and will eventually lead to tooth loss. Prevent this by brushing your dog's teeth, using the step-by-step guide included here. Your dog's teeth deserve as much care as your own! What is periodontal disease? The periodontium is the structure that surrounds and supports the tooth. It comprises... Read more »

Dental disease in your dog

Dental disease is very common in dogs. Surveys show that after the age of three years, about seven out of ten pets have some kind of tooth disorders. If left unattended these may cause irreversible damage to the dog's teeth, gums and jaw bones. Dental disease can be prevented by stopping the build up of... Read more »

Dental disease in your dog

Dental disease is very common in dogs. Surveys show that after the age of three years, about seven out of ten pets have some kind of tooth disorders. If left unattended these may cause irreversible damage to the dog's teeth, gums and jaw bones. Dental disease can be prevented by stopping the build up of... Read more »

Ear disease in your dog

Ear disease is quite common in dogs and you should make ear examination part of a weekly health check for your pet. If your dog's ears look red or sore on the inside, if there is a smell coming from the ears or if your pet is shaking its head excessively then contact your vet... Read more »

Ear cleaning

Proper ear cleaning is essential in the management of ear disease. Debris and secretions can accumulate in the ear and this may prevent treatment from reaching deep inside in the ear and some medication may not work in the presence of secretions. It is also necessary to keep the ear canal clean so that your... Read more »

Deafness in dogs

Deafness is quite common in dogs, particularly in older dogs and dogs with a white hair coat and blue eyes. Although deafness may cause a dog some problems most deaf dogs can be helped to live a happy life. Why are some dogs deaf? Deafness is quite common in dogs. Many breeds of dog, e.g.... Read more »

Ear cleaning

Proper ear cleaning is essential in the management of ear disease. Debris and secretions can accumulate in the ear and this may prevent treatment from reaching deep inside in the ear and some medication may not work in the presence of secretions. It is also necessary to keep the ear canal clean so that your... Read more »

Deafness in dogs

Deafness is quite common in dogs, particularly in older dogs and dogs with a white hair coat and blue eyes. Although deafness may cause a dog some problems most deaf dogs can be helped to live a happy life. Why are some dogs deaf? Deafness is quite common in dogs. Many breeds of dog, e.g.... Read more »

Poisoning

Poisoning can occur if a poisonous substance is swallowed (solids or liquids), breathed in (gases) or absorbed through the skin (normally liquids). Poisons are substances that damage the cells in the body. In order to cause harm they must enter or come into contact with the body. Many poisons are products we use every day... Read more »

Heat stroke

We have all heard that 'dogs can die in hot cars' - the frightening thing is how quickly this can happen. A healthy dog can suffer fatal damage from heat stroke in only a few minutes in a car. The interior of cars can also reach damaging temperatures on days that do not seem very... Read more »

Fitting in dogs – an emergency?

If you have witnessed an animal or person having a seizure (convulsion or fit), you will know how frightening it can appear. An animal suffering a generalised seizure (also known as grand mal seizure) will be unconscious. They may show violent, rhythmic movement of their legs, excessive drooling and twitching of the face and jaws. Some animals cry... Read more »

Fever – is it serious?

Often when you put a hand on your dog it feels warm, particularly on a patch of bare skin. This is because the normal body temperature of a dog is higher than that in people. Body temperature is maintained within a fairly narrow range (between 37.8°C / 100°F and 39.3°C / 102.7°F) although it varies slightly during the... Read more »

Emergencies – what to do

Immediate veterinary attention can mean the difference between life and death for an injured dog following all but the most minor of accidents. Getting your dog to your vet (where all the necessary equipment is on hand) is quicker and gives the dog a better chance than calling a vet out to the scene of... Read more »

Bloat (gastric dilation)

Gastric dilation, or 'bloat' as it is often known, is a very serious condition mainly affecting large breed dogs with a deep chest. Dogs with bloat are restless and unable to settle, they may drool saliva and vomit frothy foam. If you suspect that your dog has bloat you should call your vet or emergency... Read more »

Bloat (gastric dilation)

Gastric dilation, or 'bloat' as it is often known, is a very serious condition mainly affecting large breed dogs with a deep chest. Dogs with bloat are restless and unable to settle, they may drool saliva and vomit frothy foam. If you suspect that your dog has bloat you should call your vet or emergency... Read more »

Progessive retinal atrophy (PRA)

There are many causes of blindness in dogs and if you suspect that your dog's eyesight is deteriorating you should contact your vet immediately. Some of the causes of blindness can be treated and vision can be retained. Sadly, other causes like PRA cannot be treated but your vet may be able to help you... Read more »

Eye medication: how to give to your dog

Eye problems in dogs are quite common. Tears quickly wash out any treatment put in the eye so eye drops need to be given several times a day. This means you will have to learn how to give the treatment at home. How often do I need to put drops in? Some drops only need... Read more »

‘Dry eye’ (Keratoconjunctivitis sicca)

If your dog has recurrent problems with their eyes or has a sticky discharge that does not seem to go away you should contact your vet. It may be that they have a problem with tear production in the eyes. Lack of tears leads to dry eyes which are sore and often become infected or... Read more »

Corneal ulcers – a sore eye

The basic structure of a dog's eye is much the same as a human's eye. Consequently dogs can suffer a similar range of eye diseases to humans. Because the eye is complicated, delicate and easily damaged, all eye problems require immediate veterinary attention. What is a corneal ulcer? A corneal ulcer is a hole in... Read more »

Conjunctivitis in dogs

If your dog has a sore or red eye, or there is discharge from the eye, then it is important to contact your vet. Your dog may have an infection in the eye, but a discharge can also be caused by a foreign body (such as a grass seed) caught under the eyelid. It is... Read more »

Cataracts in dogs

Cataract is a disease of the lens of the eye in which the normally clear lens becomes opaque or white. This interferes with vision and can result in blindness. Many owners confuse a less serious problem of older dogs eyes with cataract. In some cases an eye specialist may be able to operate on the... Read more »

BVA-KC-ISDS eye testing scheme

The BVA/KC/ISDS Eye Scheme is a joint scheme between the British Veterinary Association (BVA), the Kennel Club (KC) and the International Sheepdog Society (ISDS). It was first set-up to help eradicate progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) and Collie eye anomaly (CEA) but now covers 11 inherited eye diseases in 59 breeds of dog. The BVA/KC/ISDS Eye... Read more »

Blindness in dogs

Some causes of blindness in dogs, such as cataracts, are treatable. Other causes, such as progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), are not. If there is any doubt as to whether the blindness is treatable, then referral to a veterinary ophthalmologist is recommended. How do I know if my dog is blind? At first glance that may... Read more »

Blindness in dogs

Some causes of blindness in dogs, such as cataracts, are treatable. Other causes, such as progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), are not. If there is any doubt as to whether the blindness is treatable, then referral to a veterinary ophthalmologist is recommended. How do I know if my dog is blind? At first glance that may... Read more »

Vomiting and diarrhoea

Vomiting and diarrhoea are very common in dogs. Both are symptoms of other conditions rather than diseases in their own right and there is a vast range of dog diseases in which diarrhoea and/or vomiting may occur. In many cases the problem may be successfully treated without ever pinpointing the actual cause. However, the information... Read more »

Pancreatitis

Almost all dogs will have a tummy upset at some point in their lives. In most cases this will get better over a few days without any treatment. Occasionally vomiting may be a sign of something more serious in your pet. One such disease which can cause vomiting is pancreatitis. Pancreatitis is a condition with... Read more »

Oesophageal foreign bodies in dogs

Some dogs are very greedy and any dog that thinks it is under threat of having a tasty bit of food taken away from it may swallow something without chewing properly. Dogs that scavenge are at particular risk of picking up and swallowing something they should not eat. Often scavenging merely results in an upset... Read more »

Food allergy

We probably all know people who are unable to eat strawberries or nuts due to an allergy but it isn't only people who can react to their food. Whilst food allergies are not common in dogs they can be affected too. Food allergies can produce many different symptoms, some of which can be quite distressing... Read more »

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI)

Almost all dogs will suffer from diarrhoea at some point in their lives. In most cases this lasts no more than a few days and dogs generally get better without any treatment. However, in a few cases the diarrhoea is due to a more serious underlying cause and does not resolve. EPI is one of... Read more »

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI)

Almost all dogs will suffer from diarrhoea at some point in their lives. In most cases this lasts no more than a few days and dogs generally get better without any treatment. However, in a few cases the diarrhoea is due to a more serious underlying cause and does not resolve. EPI is one of... Read more »

Ventricular septal defect (VSD)

Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is one of the more common congenital heart defects in dogs. It is sometimes referred to as a hole in the heart. The condition is often discovered in apparently healthy dogs by a vet during a routine examination (such as before vaccination). What is a ventricular septal defect? Ventricular septal defect... Read more »

Pulmonic stenosis

Pulmonic stenosis is one of the more common congenital heart defects in dogs. The condition is often discovered in apparently healthy dogs by a vet during a routine examination (such as before vaccination). What is pulmonic stenosis? Pulmonic stenosis is a congenital heart disease, i.e. it is caused by abnormal development of the puppy before... Read more »

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

Patent ductus arteriosus is one of the more common congenital heart defects in dogs. The condition is often discovered in apparently healthy dogs by a vet during a routine examination (such as before vaccination). What is a patent ductus arteriosus? The dog's heart, like that of humans, is a muscular pump with four separate chambers.... Read more »

Mitral valve disease

Mitral valve disease is the most common cause of a heart murmur in dogs. Many cases are detected by a vet after a routine examination (such as before vaccination) before dogs show any signs of illness. If your dog has been diagnosed with mitral valve disease your vet will offer advice on when (and whether)... Read more »

Investigating heart disease

It is important that your vet can recognise the early stages of heart failure (and therefore when to begin therapy, if necessary). Investigations of animals with heart disease are important to identify early signs of failure and to establish the appropriate timing and type of therapy. Heart disease and heart failure are not the same thing. In the... Read more »

High blood pressure (hypertension)

Hypertension (high blood pressure) has long been known to be a problem in people and is being increasingly recognised in pets. Hypertension is very common in older people and is often associated with smoking, or with stressful living. In animals, hypertension is almost always caused by an underlying disease. What is blood pressure? When the... Read more »

Heart rhythm disturbance (atrial fibrillation)

There are many different heart problems that can affect dogs. Some of these affect the rhythm of the heart beat and one such condition is atrial fibrillation. This is most commonly seen in large and giant breeds of dog but can be seen in smaller dogs associated with heart disease. Atrial fibrillation does not cause... Read more »

Heart disease: drug treatment

Heart disease does not necessarily mean heart failure. Many dogs with heart disease have no outward signs of illness and are able to lead relatively normal lives without any medication. However, most heart diseases will get worse and once symptoms start, treatment will probably be required for the remainder of your dog's life. When will... Read more »

Heart disease in your dog

Heart disease is increasingly common in dogs - probably because their average life expectancy is increasing due to improved veterinary care. Some heart defects, e.g. hole in the heart, are present from birth (congenital heart defects) but only cause signs as the dog gets older. Other diseases develop later in life as a result of... Read more »

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease affecting the heart muscle. It is the second most common heart disease in dogs (after mitral valve disease). In DCM the heart is unable to contract normally and as the muscle stretches the heart gets larger. DCM affects mainly middle-aged large and giant breed dogs and some spaniels. Small... Read more »

Congenital heart diseases

Bringing a new puppy into the family is an exciting time and should be a time of great joy. It can be particularly distressing to find that your new arrival has a problem. It is important that you get your new puppy checked over by your vet so that any obvious problems can be identified... Read more »

Canine heart testing schemes

Congenital heart diseases are not uncommon in puppies and some of these are inherited. Pedigree dogs have many inherited diseases and different breeds each have their own problems. Many dog breed societies employ testing schemes to detect individuals affected with certain conditions at any early stage of the disease at an early age. Early detection is... Read more »

Aortic stenosis

Aortic stenosis is one of the more common congenital heart defects in dogs. The condition is often discovered in apparently healthy dogs by a vet during a routine examination (such as before vaccination). If your vet identifies a heart murmur in your puppy it is essential to have further investigation to establish the cause of... Read more »

Aortic stenosis

Aortic stenosis is one of the more common congenital heart defects in dogs. The condition is often discovered in apparently healthy dogs by a vet during a routine examination (such as before vaccination). If your vet identifies a heart murmur in your puppy it is essential to have further investigation to establish the cause of... Read more »

Hypothyroidism (Thyroid hormone deficiency)

Thyroid hormone is produced by a small organ in the neck. A lack of this hormone (hypothyroidism) may cause a whole range of problems. Dogs with this disease are often mistakenly thought to be just getting old. It is worth looking out for this disease because treatment is simple - with daily tablets to replace... Read more »

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes is a relatively common disease in older people and is being recognised more frequently in older pets. If untreated the disease has serious effects and will ultimately result in the death of your pet. The good news is that the majority of diabetic animals can now be treated and may live normal, happy lives... Read more »

Cushing’s disease (hyperadrenocorticism)

Although Cushing's disease is a severe disease the changes it causes can be quite subtle in the early stages. Many owners do not recognise the signs of Cushing's disease in their pet, instead confusing the changes caused by the disease with ageing. It is important to get an early diagnosis for this disease because, with... Read more »

Furballs in cats

Most cat owners will have seen their cat produce a furball at some time. Although this can appear rather distressing it is a normal event for a significant number of cats so it's nothing to get unduly concerned about. Why do cats get furballs? Wild cats need different coat densities according to the seasons of... Read more »

Addison’s disease (hypoadrenocorticism)

Although Addison's disease can be a very serious disease the changes it causes can be very subtle in the early stages. The signs of the disease are variable and often vague. It is important to get an early diagnosis because, with treatment, affected animals can lead a normal and full life. What is Addison's disease?... Read more »

Acromegaly in cats

Acromegaly is a relatively rare condition, caused by excessive hormone production in the brain or in mammary gland (breast) tissue. It is more common in cats than dogs. Affected cats can develop gradual changes in their appearance but because the disease develops over a long period of time owners may not notice any problems. Some... Read more »

Addison’s disease (hypoadrenocorticism)

Although Addison's disease can be a very serious disease the changes it causes can be very subtle in the early stages. The signs of the disease are variable and often vague. It is important to get an early diagnosis because, with treatment, affected animals can lead a normal and full life. What is Addison's disease?... Read more »

Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis is a serious bacterial infection affecting the gastrointestinal tract or liver and kidneys of young dogs. Until recently the disease was uncommon as a result of an effective vaccination programme in the UK. However, we have recently seen development of infections caused by new types of leptospira not covered by the old vaccine. What... Read more »

Leishmaniosis

Leishmaniosis is a potentially fatal disease of dogs that can also affect other animals including humans. It is spread between animals by sand flies. Unfortunately domesticated dogs harbour the infection and your dog may catch it especially in countries around the Mediterranean, e.g. southern France, Italy, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Turkey, and the Middle East. Leishmaniosis... Read more »

Kennel cough (acute tracheobronchitis)

Kennel cough is not a serious disease in most otherwise healthy dogs. However, it is very contagious and will spread rapidly around the dog population. As its name suggests, it causes coughing that can go on for a month in some cases. What is kennel cough? Kennel cough is caused by a combination of viruses... Read more »

Infectious hepatitis

Infectious hepatitis is a serious viral infection, most often seen in dogs less than one year old. It primarily causes damage to the liver. Although dogs with mild disease usually recover, the disease is often fatal in severely affected animals. Recovered animals can shed infection for many months and may be a risk to other... Read more »

Heartworm disease

This potentially serious parasitic disease can cause heart failure and other complications. In most countries where the disease occurs, preventative treatment is given to pet dogs to ensure they do not become infected. What is heartworm? The disease, as the name suggests, is caused by a parasitic worm called Dirofilaria immitis which lives in the heart. The... Read more »

Ehrlichiosis

Ehrlichiosis is a serious parasitic infection of dogs, transmitted by ticks in warm or tropical regions and occasionally elsewhere. The most serious form of the disease has a long course of many months to years and usually proves fatal. Ehrlichiosis may be seen in dogs in non-tropical countries if the animals have travelled from areas... Read more »

Distemper disease

Distemper is a serious viral infection, most often seen in dogs less than one year old. Highly effective vaccines have ensured that distemper is rarely seen in vaccinated pet dogs. It is still a problem in the UK in unvaccinated pets, particularly in urban areas. In other countries the disease is still a big killer... Read more »

Antibiotic resistant bacterial infections

MRSA (Meticillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a nasty bacterial infection that has been widely reported in the media. It has been in the news for the sometimes fatal infection of people and has been dubbed 'the superbug' and 'flesh eating bacteria'. MRSA can also occur in pets; however, dogs more commonly can be infected with... Read more »

Antibiotic resistant bacterial infections

MRSA (Meticillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a nasty bacterial infection that has been widely reported in the media. It has been in the news for the sometimes fatal infection of people and has been dubbed 'the superbug' and 'flesh eating bacteria'. MRSA can also occur in pets; however, dogs more commonly can be infected with... Read more »

Arthritis

Arthritis is a familiar problem for most vets. A large number of dogs are diagnosed with arthritis. Arthritis simply means an inflammation of joints and animals with arthritis usually suffer with pain and stiffness in their joints. Arthritis is typically a problem in older pets. However, many animals with arthritis will have had signs of... Read more »

Arthritis

Arthritis is a familiar problem for most vets. A large number of dogs are diagnosed with arthritis. Arthritis simply means an inflammation of joints and animals with arthritis usually suffer with pain and stiffness in their joints. Arthritis is typically a problem in older pets. However, many animals with arthritis will have had signs of... Read more »

Bromide

Seizures are caused by abnormal electrical discharges from nerve cells in the brain. Bromide suppresses seizure activity by reducing the electrical charge within these cells. How much bromide should my dog have? Bromide is normally given as a potassium salt and is available in liquid, capsule or tablet form. Potassium bromide should be given with... Read more »

Bromide

Seizures are caused by abnormal electrical discharges from nerve cells in the brain. Bromide suppresses seizure activity by reducing the electrical charge within these cells. How much bromide should my dog have? I am text block. Click edit button to change this text. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus... Read more »

Whelping – potential problems

Just like it is for women, giving birth is a completely natural process for bitches. In most cases the delivery will go smoothly and your bitch will manage better without any interference. However, you should keep a watchful eye on proceedings as problems can occur. If your bitch is having problems then early intervention could... Read more »

Pyometra (‘pyo’ or womb infection)

Pyometra is a common disease in un-neutered female dogs that requires major surgery to cure. Though potentially very serious, many animals respond well to the treatment and can expect to make a full recovery. The best way to protect your female pet against pyometra is to have her neutered. What is pyometra? Pyo = pus, infection; metra = womb or uterus. Pyometra is... Read more »

Hand-rearing puppies

Fortunately it is very unusual for a mother to be unable to rear her puppies herself. Taking on the task of bringing up a litter of puppies is rightly daunting and it requires considerable dedication for the first 4 weeks. If you are placed in the situation of having to rear puppies by hand you... Read more »

False pregnancy

Some unneutered female dogs develop changes several months after a season. This is often referred to a 'false pregnancy' or 'pseudopregnancy'. In most animals this is not a serious condition but it can be inconvenient for the owner and disturbing for the animal. Usually the condition resolves without any treatment but if you are not thinking of... Read more »

Eclampsia (puerperal tetany)

Canine eclampsia, also sometimes wrongly called  "milk fever", is a dangerous condition brought on by low levels of calcium in the blood stream. It is also called hypocalcaemia and puerperal tetany and needs emergency veterinary attention. Is my dog at risk of eclampsia? Eclampsia is most commonly seen in small or medium-sized bitches a few weeks after whelping.... Read more »

Cryptorchidism (retained testicles)

When a male puppy is in the womb its testicles are drawn up inside the body. After birth the testicles begin a journey from inside the tummy (abdomen) to the scrotum. Both testicles should have descended to the scrotum by six month of age and be easy to palpate. If testicles do not end up... Read more »

Breeding from your dog

A bitch (female dog) can produce 1-2 litters of puppies each year. If you are not intending to let your bitch have puppies then you might consider having her neutered. However, if you do decide to breed from your bitch there are many things to consider to ensure that both mother and puppies are strong... Read more »

Birth control in the bitch

Most responsible dog owners want to prevent unplanned breeding and the production of unwanted puppies. Most forms of birth control prevent the heat cycle of bitches, and so mating and conception does not occur. The cycle can be controlled permanently or temporarily. Pregnancy prevention is also possible after an unplanned mating has occurred. Some basic... Read more »

Birth control in the bitch

Most responsible dog owners want to prevent unplanned breeding and the production of unwanted puppies. Most forms of birth control prevent the heat cycle of bitches, and so mating and conception does not occur. The cycle can be controlled permanently or temporarily. Pregnancy prevention is also possible after an unplanned mating has occurred. Some basic... Read more »

Lungworms in dogs (Angiostrongylus)

Referring to Angiostrongylus vasorum as a lungworm is quite misleading. Although the early stages of the parasite do affect the lungs and severely infected dogs may show signs of coughing, other signs are far more common. These lungworms (Angiostrongylus vasorum) are also known as the French heartworm. This is a parasite where the adult worm infects dogs... Read more »

Laryngeal paralysis

Laryngeal paralysis causes respiratory (breathing) noise and exercise intolerance in medium and large breeds of dogs. The disease is very slowly progressive and may start very subtly, so by the time you notice significant breathing noise or inability to exercise it might be quite far progressed. If you notice these changes in your dog you should seek... Read more »

Coupage for dogs

If you think your pet has a respiratory condition that might benefit from coupage, seek advice as soon as possible from your veterinary surgeon or veterinary physiotherapist. What is coupage? Coupage is a form of chest physiotherapy that when performed correctly can be beneficial in loosening and removing excess secretions from the lungs. Many respiratory conditions... Read more »

Coughing in dogs

It is not uncommon for dogs to cough occasionally. However, if your pet is coughing frequently or has persistent episodes of coughing then you should seek veterinary advice. There are many causes of coughing and many of these can be treated successfully. Some dogs occasionally cough when they get excited or pull on their lead.... Read more »

Collapsing trachea

If you have a small dog that coughs every time it gets excited or pulls on its lead it may be suffering from tracheal collapse. Tracheal collapse results in narrowing of the airway and, if left untreated, can progress over time causing severe consequences for your pet. If your dog develops a cough that does... Read more »

Brachycephalic upper airway obstruction syndrome (BUAOS)

If you are considering buying, or already own, a dog with a short nose such as a Pug, Boston terrier, Pekingese or Bulldog then you need to be aware of the welfare issues surrounding brachycephalic upper airway obstruction syndrome. What is brachycephalic upper airway syndrome? Over the past hundred years human beings have designed for... Read more »

Brachycephalic upper airway obstruction syndrome (BUAOS)

If you are considering buying, or already own, a dog with a short nose such as a Pug, Boston terrier, Pekingese or Bulldog then you need to be aware of the welfare issues surrounding brachycephalic upper airway obstruction syndrome. What is brachycephalic upper airway syndrome? Over the past hundred years human beings have designed for... Read more »

Lungworms in dogs (Angiostrongylus)

Referring to Angiostrongylus vasorum as a lungworm is quite misleading. Although the early stages of the parasite do affect the lungs and severely infected dogs may show signs of coughing, other signs are far more common. These lungworms (Angiostrongylus vasorum) are also known as the French heartworm. This is a parasite where the adult worm infects dogs... Read more »

Laryngeal paralysis

Laryngeal paralysis causes respiratory (breathing) noise and exercise intolerance in medium and large breeds of dogs. The disease is very slowly progressive and may start very subtly, so by the time you notice significant breathing noise or inability to exercise it might be quite far progressed. If you notice these changes in your dog you should seek... Read more »

Coupage for dogs

If you think your pet has a respiratory condition that might benefit from coupage, seek advice as soon as possible from your veterinary surgeon or veterinary physiotherapist. What is coupage? Coupage is a form of chest physiotherapy that when performed correctly can be beneficial in loosening and removing excess secretions from the lungs. Many respiratory conditions... Read more »

Coughing in dogs

It is not uncommon for dogs to cough occasionally. However, if your pet is coughing frequently or has persistent episodes of coughing then you should seek veterinary advice. There are many causes of coughing and many of these can be treated successfully. Some dogs occasionally cough when they get excited or pull on their lead.... Read more »

Collapsing trachea

If you have a small dog that coughs every time it gets excited or pulls on its lead it may be suffering from tracheal collapse. Tracheal collapse results in narrowing of the airway and, if left untreated, can progress over time causing severe consequences for your pet. If your dog develops a cough that does... Read more »

Brachycephalic upper airway obstruction syndrome (BUAOS)

If you are considering buying, or already own, a dog with a short nose such as a Pug, Boston terrier, Pekingese or Bulldog then you need to be aware of the welfare issues surrounding brachycephalic upper airway obstruction syndrome. What is brachycephalic upper airway syndrome? Over the past hundred years human beings have designed for... Read more »

Brachycephalic upper airway obstruction syndrome (BUAOS)

If you are considering buying, or already own, a dog with a short nose such as a Pug, Boston terrier, Pekingese or Bulldog then you need to be aware of the welfare issues surrounding brachycephalic upper airway obstruction syndrome. What is brachycephalic upper airway syndrome? Over the past hundred years human beings have designed for... Read more »

Anal furunculosis (perianal fistulas)

Anal furunculosis (also called perianal fistulas) is a distressing condition commonly affecting German Shepherd dogs and occasionally other breeds. The problem is one of chronic deep infection, inflammation, discharges and ulceration around the tail base and anus. The condition may progress to involve a large area around the back end of the dog. It can... Read more »

Atopy

Living with an itchy dog is no fun - but being an itchy dog must be worse! Atopy affects around 1 in 10 dogs to some degree. In dogs the condition can cause a variety of signs: skin disease, runny nose, itchy eyes and (very rarely) asthma. If your dog persists in licking its feet... Read more »

Hot spots (wet eczema, pyotraumatic dermatitis)

Sometimes dogs develop a sore spot on the skin which oozes and irritates. Often this develops over the space of just a few hours. The critical step in managing these spots is to stop the dog worrying them but veterinary attention should be sought to ensure there is no underlying condition that needs treatment. In... Read more »

Skin fold pyoderma

Pyoderma means bacterial infection within the skin. Usually this occurs within the top layers of the skin (superficial pyoderma), and is a common medical problem in dogs. Deep pyoderma, when infection penetrates further into the skin, is much more serious and may take months of intensive treatment to cure. What causes skin fold pyoderma? Skin... Read more »

‘Walking dandruff’ (Cheyletiellosis)

Cheyletiella infection is a form of mange that is also known as rabbit mites and walking dandruff. This is an itchy skin condition caused by small parasites living on the skin surface. The mites can be found on many animals including dogs, cats and rabbits and can be transmitted from pets to people. Early recognition... Read more »

Acral lick granuloma

Lick granulomas are moist, fleshy pink sores usually on a dog's legs. They are caused by excessive licking at the site and are frequently caused by an underlying disease that needs to be properly diagnosed and treated. If you suspect that your dog has a lick granuloma you should seek veterinary advice as soon as... Read more »

‘Walking dandruff’ (Cheyletiellosis)

Cheyletiella infection is a form of mange that is also known as rabbit mites and walking dandruff. This is an itchy skin condition caused by small parasites living on the skin surface. The mites can be found on many animals including dogs, cats and rabbits and can be transmitted from pets to people. Early recognition... Read more »

Skin fold pyoderma

Pyoderma means bacterial infection within the skin. Usually this occurs within the top layers of the skin (superficial pyoderma), and is a common medical problem in dogs. Deep pyoderma, when infection penetrates further into the skin, is much more serious and may take months of intensive treatment to cure. What causes skin fold pyoderma? Skin... Read more »

Hot spots (wet eczema, pyotraumatic dermatitis)

Sometimes dogs develop a sore spot on the skin which oozes and irritates. Often this develops over the space of just a few hours. The critical step in managing these spots is to stop the dog worrying them but veterinary attention should be sought to ensure there is no underlying condition that needs treatment. In... Read more »

Atopy

Living with an itchy dog is no fun - but being an itchy dog must be worse! Atopy affects around 1 in 10 dogs to some degree. In dogs the condition can cause a variety of signs: skin disease, runny nose, itchy eyes and (very rarely) asthma. If your dog persists in licking its feet... Read more »

Disease risks when travelling to continental Europe

An increasing number of owners are taking their pets with them on holiday when they travel to continental Europe. This factsheet provides information on the more important novel diseases that your dog may come into contact with abroad. What are the main disease risks abroad? There are a number of protozoal diseases found in continental Europe that... Read more »

Pet passports

Pet passports are part of the European Union (EU) Regulation on the movement of pet animals. Certain non-EU listed countries may also issue a passport. Dogs travelling on Pet Passports must be treated against tapeworms before entering the UK from most countries. The treatment will be recorded in the passport. What regulations affect pet travel?... Read more »

Taking your pet abroad

The Pet Travel Scheme (PETS) allows for limited movement of pets between the UK and some European countries under controlled conditions. What do I need to take my pet abroad? If you wish to take your pet abroad with you and bring it home again you must ensure that you follow all the rules. The... Read more »

Travelling with your dog

For most family dogs travelling is an exciting and often enjoyable experience. Dogs like to be included in whatever their family is doing and quickly learn that a car journey often leads to a walk. Unfortunately a few dogs find travelling very stressful because they feel frightened or travel sick. When taking any pet on... Read more »

Travelling: leaving your pet behind

International travel is becoming increasingly common for pets and the Pet Travel Scheme (PETS), which even allows limited movement of pets through Europe and the UK, is now fully operational. However, many pet owners still prefer to leave their pets behind when they go away. Will my dog be happy being left behind? Dogs are... Read more »

Choosing a boarding kennel

Choosing a boarding kennel It would probably be less traumatic for most dogs to be looked after by an experienced and reliable 'pet sitter'. Pet sitters are individuals who come to your home and stay there when you are away. They look after your dog in his or her normal environment. The majority of dog... Read more »

Travelling: leaving your pet behind

International travel is becoming increasingly common for pets and the Pet Travel Scheme (PETS), which even allows limited movement of pets through Europe and the UK, is now fully operational. However, many pet owners still prefer to leave their pets behind when they go away. Will my dog be happy being left behind? Dogs are... Read more »

Travelling with your dog

For most family dogs travelling is an exciting and often enjoyable experience. Dogs like to be included in whatever their family is doing and quickly learn that a car journey often leads to a walk. Unfortunately a few dogs find travelling very stressful because they feel frightened or travel sick. When taking any pet on... Read more »

Taking your pet abroad

The Pet Travel Scheme (PETS) allows for limited movement of pets between the UK and some European countries under controlled conditions. What do I need to take my pet abroad? If you wish to take your pet abroad with you and bring it home again you must ensure that you follow all the rules. The... Read more »

Pet passports

Pet passports are part of the European Union (EU) Regulation on the movement of pet animals. Certain non-EU listed countries may also issue a passport. Dogs travelling on Pet Passports must be treated against tapeworms before entering the UK from most countries. The treatment will be recorded in the passport. What regulations affect pet travel?... Read more »

Samples and tests – how they help your vet

Laboratory tests are used by vets to help them diagnose disease in animals that are ill. Increasingly, they are also used as part of a routine health check to detect hidden disease before the development of obvious symptoms. This allows your dog to be treated earlier and more effectively. A very important use is to... Read more »

Scanning – the inside picture

The term ‘scan’ is often used to describe the method of obtaining an image of the inside of the body. This may be done with ultrasound (details of which can be found in a separate factsheet), which is often available in veterinary practices and may be performed at your vet’s surgery. Recently, more specialised scans... Read more »

X-rays and ultrasound

Veterinary medicine has made many advances in the last 10 years and many local veterinary practices are now able to perform x-ray and ultrasound examinations. Why does my vet need to do tests? Your vet can get a lot of information about what might be wrong with your dog from talking to you and examining... Read more »

Endoscopy – the inside story

Sometimes it can be really helpful to look inside an animal to see what is going on. There are many ways of examining the insides of an animal: blood tests, imaging techniques (like X-ray and ultrasound) and sometimes it is necessary to operate to find out what is going on. Endoscopy is an alternative to... Read more »

X-rays and ultrasound

Veterinary medicine has made many advances in the last 10 years and many local veterinary practices are now able to perform x-ray and ultrasound examinations. Why does my vet need to do tests? Your vet can get a lot of information about what might be wrong with your dog from talking to you and examining your... Read more »

Scanning – the inside picture

The term 'scan' is often used to describe the method of obtaining an image of the inside of the body. This may be done with ultrasound (details of which can be found in a separate factsheet), which is often available in veterinary practices and may be performed at your vet's surgery. Recently, more specialised scans... Read more »

Samples and tests – how they help your vet

Laboratory tests are used by vets to help them diagnose disease in animals that are ill. Increasingly, they are also used as part of a routine health check to detect hidden disease before the development of obvious symptoms. This allows your dog to be treated earlier and more effectively. A very important use is to... Read more »

Endoscopy – the inside story

Sometimes it can be really helpful to look inside an animal to see what is going on. There are many ways of examining the insides of an animal: blood tests, imaging techniques (like X-ray and ultrasound) and sometimes it is necessary to operate to find out what is going on. Endoscopy is an alternative to... Read more »